The agreement that created a two-house legislature is known as the Great Compromise, also called the Connecticut Compromise. This landmark agreement was reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia.
At the time, the delegates to the convention were struggling to find a way to balance the interests of small states, which wanted equal representation in Congress, with those of larger states, which wanted representation based on population. This tension threatened to derail the entire effort to create a strong central government.
The Great Compromise resolved this issue by creating a bicameral legislature composed of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate would have two senators from each state, providing equal representation for all states regardless of size. The House of Representatives, on the other hand, would be based on population, with each state receiving a number of representatives proportional to its population.
The Great Compromise was a critical moment in the formation of the United States government. It ensured that all states had a voice in the legislative process, while also allowing for representation based on population. This compromise helped to establish the balance of power that is still central to the functioning of the US government today.
In addition to creating the two-house legislature, the Great Compromise also established the supremacy of the federal government over state governments, established the Electoral College to elect the president, and set the procedure for amending the Constitution.
In conclusion, the Great Compromise was a pivotal moment in American history, and its impact can still be felt today. By creating a two-house legislature that balanced the interests of small and large states, the Great Compromise established a framework for the US government that has endured for more than two centuries.